The state is permitted to make a provision for the reservation of upto 10% of appointments or posts in favour of any economically weaker sections of citizens. This reservation of upto 10% would be in addition to the existing reservation. For this purpose, the economically weaker sections would be notified by the state from time to time on the basis of family income and other indicators of economic disadvantage.
This provision was added by the 103rd Amendment Act of 2019. In order to give effect to this provision, the central government issued an order (in 2019) providing 10% reservation to the Economically Weaker Sections (EWSs) in civil posts and services in the Government of India. The benefit of this reservation can be availed by the persons belonging to EWSs who are not covered under any of the existing schemes of reservation for SCs, STs and OBCs. The eligibility criteria laid down in this regard has already been explained under Article 15.
Further, the scientific and technical posts which satisfy all the following conditions can be exempted from the purview of this reservation:
- The posts should be in grades above the lower grade in Group A of the service concerned.
- They should be classified as “scientific or technical” in terms of Cabinet Secretariat Order (1961), according to which scientific and technical posts for which qualifications in the natural sciences or exact sciences or applied sciences or in technology are prescribed and the incumbents of which have to use that knowledge in the discharge of their duties.
- The posts should be for conducting research or for organizing, guiding and directing research.