INDIAN POLITY

INDIAN POLITY भारतीय की राजनीति

For Civil Services, Other State Examinations Exam, Railway Exams, SSC Exam and other Competitive Exams.

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PART-I

Constitutional Framework

  1. Historical Background
    • The Company Rule (1773–1858)
    • The Crown Rule (1858–1947)
  2. Making of the Constitution
    • Demand for a Constituent Assembly
    • Composition of the Constituent Assembly
    • Working of the Constituent Assembly
    • Committees of the Constituent Assembly
    • Enactment of the Constitution
    • Enforcement of the Constitution
    • Experts Committee of the Congress
    • Criticism of the Constituent Assembly
    • Constitution at a Glance
  3. Salient Features of the Constitution
    • Salient Features of the Constitution
    • Criticism of the Constitution
  4. Preamble of the Constitution Text of the Preamble
    • Ingredients of the Preamble
    • Key Words in the Preamble
    • Significance of the Preamble
    • Preamble as Part of the Constitution
    • Amendability of the Preamble Notes and References
  5. Union and Its Territory
    • Union of States
    • Parliament’s Power to Reorganise the States
    • Exchange of Territories with Bangladesh
    • Evolution of States and Union Territories
  6. Citizenship
    • Meaning and Significance
    • Constitutional Provisions
    • Citizenship Act, 1955
    • Single Citizenship
    • Overseas Citizenship of India
    • Notes and References
  7. Fundamental Rights
    • Features of Fundamental Rights
    • Definition of State
    • Laws Inconsistent with Fundamental Rights
    • Right to Equality
    • Right to Freedom
    • Right Against Exploitation
    • Right to Freedom of Religion
    • Cultural and Educational Rights
    • Right to Constitutional Remedies
    • Writs—Types and Scope
    • Armed Forces and Fundamental Rights
    • Martial Law and Fundamental Rights
    • Effecting Certain Fundamental Rights
    • Present Position of Right to Property
    • Exceptions to Fundamental Rights
    • Criticism of Fundamental Rights
    • Significance of Fundamental Rights
    • Rights Outside Part III
  8. Directive Principles of State Policy
    • Features of the Directive Principles
    • Classification of the Directive Principles
    • New Directive Principles
    • Sanction Behind Directive Principles
    • Criticism of the Directive Principles
    • Utility of Directive Principles
    • Conflict Between Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles
    • Implementation of Directive Principles
    • Directives Outside Part IV
      • Fundamental Duties

      Swaran Singh Committee Recommendations

      List of Fundamental Duties

      Features of the Fundamental Duties

      Criticism of Fundamental Duties

      Significance of Fundamental Duties

      Verma Committee Observations Notes and References

      • Amendment of the Constitution

      Procedure for Amendment

      Types of Amendments

      Criticism of the Amendment Procedure Notes and References

      • Basic Structure of the Constitution Emergence of the Basic Structure

      Elements of the Basic Structure Notes and References

      PART-II

      System of Government

      • Parliamentary System

      Features of Parliamentary Government Features of Presidential Government

      Merits of the Parliamentary System

      Demerits of the Parliamentary System

      Reasons for Adopting Parliamentary System

      Distinction between Indian and British Models Notes and References

      • Federal System

      Federal Features of the Constitution

      Unitary Features of the Constitution

      Critical Evaluation of the Federal System Notes and References

      • Centre–State Relations

      Legislative Relations

      Administrative Relations

      Financial Relations

      Trends in Centre–State Relations

      Notes and References

      • Inter-State Relations Inter-State Water Disputes

      Inter-State Councils

      Public Acts, Records and Judicial Proceedings

      Inter-State Trade and Commerce

      Zonal Councils

      Notes and References

      • Emergency Provisions

      National Emergency

      President’s Rule

      Financial Emergency

      Criticism of the Emergency Provisions Notes and References

      PART-III

      Central Government

      • President

      Election of the President

      Qualifications, Oath and Conditions

      Term, Impeachment and Vacancy

      Powers and Functions of the President

      Veto Power of the President

      Ordinance-Making Power of the President

      Pardoning Power of the President

      Constitutional Position of the President Notes and References

      • Vice-President

      Election

      Qualifications, Oath and Conditions

      Term and Vacancy

      Powers and Functions

      Indian and American Vice-Presidents Compared Notes and References

      • Prime Minister

      Appointment of the Prime Minister

      Oath, Term and Salary

      Powers and Functions of the Prime Minister

      Role Descriptions

      Relationship with the President

      Chief Ministers who became Prime Ministers Notes and References

      • Central Council of Ministers Constitutional Provisions

      Nature of Advice by Ministers

      Appointment of Ministers

      Oath and Salary of Ministers

      Responsibility of Ministers

      Composition of the Council of Ministers

      Council of Ministers vs Cabinet

      Role of Cabinet

      Role Descriptions Kitchen Cabinet

      Notes and References

      • Cabinet Committees

      Features of Cabinet Committees

      List of Cabinet Committees

      Functions of Cabinet Committees

      Groups of Ministers

      Notes and References

      • Parliament

      Organisation of Parliament

      Composition of the Two Houses

      System of Elections to Lok Sabha

      Duration of Two Houses

      Membership of Parliament

      Presiding Officers of Parliament

      Leaders in Parliament

      Sessions of Parliament

      Devices of Parliamentary Proceedings

      Legislative Procedure in Parliament

      Joint Sitting of Two Houses

      Budget in Parliament

      Multifunctional Role of Parliament

      Ineffectiveness of Parliamentary Control

      Position of Rajya Sabha

      Parliamentary Privileges

      Sovereignty of Parliament Notes and References

      23    Parliamentary Committees

      Meaning

      Classification

      Financial Committees

      Departmental Standing Committees

      Committees to Inquire

      Committees to Scrutinise and Control

      Committees Relating to the Day-to-Day Business of the House

      House-Keeping Committees

      Consultative Committees Notes and References

      • Parliamentary Forums

      Establishment of the Forums

      Objectives of the Forums

      Composition of the Forums

      Functions of the Forums

      Notes and References

      • Parliamentary Group

      Rationale of the Group

      Composition of the Group

      Objectives of the Group

      Functions of the Group

      The Group and IPU

      The Group and CPA

      Notes and References

      • Supreme Court

      Composition and Appointment

      Qualifications, Oath and Salaries

      Tenure and Removal

      Acting, Adhoc and Retired Judges

      Seat and Procedure

      Independence of Supreme Court

      Jurisdiction and Powers of Supreme Court

      Supreme Court Advocates Notes and References

      • Judicial Review Meaning of Judicial Review

      Importance of Judicial Review

      Constitutional Provisions for Judicial Review

      Scope of Judicial Review

      Judicial Review of the Ninth Schedule Notes and References

      • Judicial Activism

      Meaning of Judicial Activism

      Judicial Review and Judicial Activism

      Justification of Judicial Activism

      Activators of Judicial Activism

      Apprehensions of Judicial Activism

      Judicial Activism vs. Judicial Restraint Notes and References

      • Public Interest Litigation

      Meaning of PIL

      Features of PIL

      Scope of PIL

      Principles of PIL

      Guidelines for Admitting PIL Notes and References

      PART-IV

      State Government

      • Governor

      Appointment of Governor

      Conditions of Governor’s Office

      Term of Governor’s Office

      Powers and Functions of Governor Constitutional Position of Governor Notes and References

      • Chief Minister

      Appointment of Chief Minister

      Oath, Term and Salary

      Powers and Functions of Chief Minister

      Relationship with the Governor Notes and References

      • State Council of Ministers Constitutional Provisions

      Nature of Advice by Ministers

      Appointment of Ministers

      Oath and Salary of Ministers

      Responsibility of Ministers

      Composition of the Council of Ministers

      Cabinet

      Notes and References

      • State Legislature

      Organisation of State Legislature

      Composition of Two Houses

      Duration of Two Houses

      Membership of State Legislature

      Presiding Officers of State Legislature

      Sessions of State Legislature

      Legislative Procedure in State Legislature

      Position of Legislative Council

      Privileges of State Legislature Notes and References

      • High Court

      Composition and Appointment

      Qualifications, Oath and Salaries

      Tenure, Removal and Transfer

      Acting, Additional and Retired Judges

      Independence of High Court

      Jurisdiction and Powers of High Court Notes and References

      • Tribunals

      Administrative Tribunals

      Tribunals for Other Matters

      Notes and References

      • Subordinate Courts

      Constitutional Provisions

      Structure and Jurisdiction

      National Legal Services Authority

      Lok Adalats

      Permanent Lok Adalats

      Family Courts

      Gram Nyayalayas

      Notes and References

      • Special Provisions for Some States

      Provisions for Maharashtra and Gujarat

      Provisions for Nagaland

      Provisions for Assam and Manipur

      Provisions for Andhra Pradesh or Telangana

      Provisions for Sikkim

      Provisions for Mizoram

      Provisions for Arunachal Pradesh and Goa

      Provisions for Karnataka Notes and References

      PART-V

      Local Government

      • Panchayati Raj

      Evolution of Panchayati Raj

      73rd Amendment Act of 1992

      Compulsory and Voluntary Provisions

      PESA Act of 1996 (Extension Act)

      Finances of Panchayati Raj

      Reasons for Ineffective Performance Notes and References

      • Municipalities

      Evolution of Urban Bodies

      74th Amendment Act of 1992

      Types of Urban Governments

      Municipal Personnel

      Municipal Revenue

      Central Council of Local Government Notes and References

      PART-VI

      Union Territories and Special Areas

      • Union Territories

      Creation of Union Territories

      Administration of Union Territories

      Special Provisions for Delhi

      Advisory Committees of Union Territories Notes and References

      • Scheduled and Tribal Areas Administration of Scheduled Areas

      Administration of Tribal Areas Notes and References

      PART-VII

      Constitutional Bodies

      • Election Commission

      Composition

      Independence

      Powers and Functions

      Vision, Mission and Principles Notes and References

      • Union Public Service Commission Composition

      Removal

      Independence

      Functions

      Limitations

      Role

      Notes and References

      • State Public Service Commission

      Composition

      Removal

      Independence

      Functions

      Limitations

      Role

      Joint State Public Service Commission

      Notes and References

      • Finance Commission

      Composition

      Functions

      Advisory Role

      Notes and References

      • Goods and Services Tax Council Establishment of the Council

      Vision and Mission of the Council

      Composition of the Council

      Working of the Council

      Functions of the Council

      Other Functions of the Council Notes and References

      • National Commission for SCs Evolution of the Commission

      Functions of the Commission

      Report of the Commission

      Powers of the Commission Notes and References

      • National Commission for STs Separate Commission for STs

      Functions of the Commission

      Other Functions of the Commission

      Report of the Commission

      Powers of the Commission Notes and References

      • National Commission for BCs Establishment of the Commission

      Functions of the Commission

      Report of the Commission

      Powers of the Commission Notes and References

      • Special Officer for Linguistic Minorities Constitutional Provisions

      Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities

      Role of the Commissioner

      Vision and Mission

      Functions and Objectives Notes and References

      • Comptroller and Auditor General of India

      Appointment and Term

      Independence

      Duties and Powers

      Role

      Cag and Corporations

      Appleby’s Criticism

      Notes and References

      • Attorney General of India Appointment and Term

      Duties and Functions

      Rights and Limitations

      Solicitor General of India Notes and References

      • Advocate General of the State

      Appointment and Term

      Duties and Functions

      Notes and References

      PART-VIII

      Non-Constitutional Bodies

      • NITI Aayog

      Establishment

      Rationale

      Composition

      Specialised Wings

      Objectives

      Functions

      Guiding Principles

      Cooperative Federalism

      Criticism

      Attached Offices

      Erstwhile Planning Commission

      National Development Council Notes and References

      • National Human Rights Commission

      Establishment of the Commission

      Composition of the Commission

      Functions of the Commission

      Working of the Commission

      Role of the Commission

      Performance of the Commission Notes and References

      • State Human Rights Commission Composition of the Commission

      Functions of the Commission

      Working of the Commission

      Human Rights Courts

      2019 Amendment Act

      Notes and References

      • Central Information Commission Composition

      Tenure and Service Conditions Powers and Functions

      Notes and References

      • State Information Commission Composition

      Tenure and Service Conditions

      Powers and Functions

      RTI Amendment Act, 2019 Notes and References

      • Central Vigilance Commission

      Establishment

      Composition

      Organisation

      Functions

      Jurisdiction

      Working

      Vigilance Units in the Ministries

      Whistle Blowers Protection Act (2014) Notes and References

      • Central Bureau of Investigation Establishment of CBI

      Motto, Mission and Vision of CBI

      Organisation of CBI

      Composition of CBI

      Functions of CBI

      Provision of Prior Permission

      CBI vs. State Police

      CBI Academy

      Notes and References

      • Lokpal and Lokayuktas

      Global Scenario

      Position in India

      Lokpal

      Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act (2013)

      Lokayuktas

      Notes and References

      • National Investigation Agency

      Establishment of the NIA

      Rationale of the NIA

      Functions of the NIA

      Vision of the NIA

      Mission of the NIA

      Jurisdiction of the NIA

      NIA (Amendment) Act, 2019 Notes and References

      • National Disaster Management Authority

      Establishment of the NDMA

      Objectives of the NDMA

      Functions of the NDMA

      Additional Functions of the NDMA

      State Disaster Management Authority

      District Disaster Management Authority Notes and References

      PART-IX

      Other Constitutional Dimensions

      • Co-operative Societies Constitutional Provisions

      Reasons for the 97th Amendment Notes and References

      • Official Language Language of the Union

      Regional Languages

      Language of the Judiciary and Texts of Laws

      Special Directives

      Committee of Parliament on Official Language

      Classical Language Status Notes and References

      • Public Services

      Classification of Services

      Constitutional Provisions Notes and References

      • Rights and Liabilities of the Government

      Property of the Union and the States

      Suits by or Against the Government

      Suits Against Public Officials Notes and References

      • Special Provisions Relating to Certain Classes Rationale of Special Provisions

      Specification of Classes

      Components of Special Provisions Notes and References

      PART-X

      Political Dynamics

      • Political Parties Meaning and Types

      Party System in India

      Recognition of National and State Parties Notes and References

      • Role of Regional Parties Features of Regional Parties

      Classification of Regional Parties

      Rise of Regional Parties

      Role of Regional Parties

      Dysfunctions of Regional Parties Notes and References

      • Elections

      Electoral System

      Election Machinery

      Election Process

      Notes and References

      • Election Laws

      Representation of the People Act, 1950

      Representation of the People Act, 1951

      Delimitation Act, 2002

      Other Acts Relating to Elections

      Rules Relating to Elections

      Orders Relating to Elections Notes and References

      • Electoral Reforms

      Committees Related to Electoral Reforms

      Electoral Reforms Before 1996

      Electoral Reforms of 1996

      Electoral Reforms After 1996

      Electoral Reforms Since 2010 Notes and References

      • Voting Behaviour Meaning of Voting Behaviour

      Significance of Voting Behaviour

      Determinants of Voting Behaviour

      Role of Media in Elections and Voting Behaviour

      Notes and References

      • Coalition Government Meaning of Coalition Government

      Features of Coalition Government

      Formation of Coalition Governments

      Merits of Coalition Government

      Demerits of Coalition Government Notes and References

      • Anti-Defection Law

      Provisions of the Act

      Evaluation of the Act

      91st Amendment Act (2003) Notes and References

      • Pressure Groups Meaning and Techniques

      Pressure Groups in India

      Notes and References

      • National Integration

      Meaning of National Integration

      Obstacles to National Integration

      National Integration Council

      National Foundation for Communal Harmony Notes and References

      • Foreign Policy

      Principles of Indian Foreign Policy

      Objectives of Indian Foreign Policy

      Gujral Doctrine of India

      Nuclear Doctrine of India

      Connect Central Asia Policy of India

      Act East Policy of India

      Notes and References

      PART-XI

      Working of the Constitution

      • National Commission to Review the Working of the

      Constitution

      1. Terms of Reference of the Commission
      2. Fifty Years of Working of the Constitution
      • Areas of Concern: Commission’s Perception
      1. Recommendations of the Commission
      2. Earlier Efforts to Review the Constitution

      Notes and References