Alluvial soils are widespread in the northern plains and the river valleys. These soils cover about 40 per cent of the total area of the country. They are depositional soils, transported and deposited by rivers and streams. Through a narrow corridor in Rajasthan, they extend into the plains of Gujarat. In the Peninsular region, they are found in deltas of the east coast and in the river valleys. The alluvial soils vary in nature from sandy loam to clay.
- Alluvial Soils are generally well-drained rich in potash, organic material, micro-nutrients but poor in phosphorous.
In the Upper and Middle Ganga plain, two different types of alluvial soils have developed, viz. Khadar and Bhangar.
- Khadar is the new alluvium and is deposited by floods annually, which enriches the soil by depositing fine silts.
- Bhangar represents a system of older alluvium, deposited away from the flood plains.
Both the Khadar and Bhangar soils contain calcareous concretions (Kankars). These soils are more loamy and clayey in the lower and middle Ganga plain and the Brahamaputra valley. The sand content decreases from the west to east. The colour of the alluvial soils varies from the light grey to ash grey. Its shades depend on the depth of the deposition, the texture of the materials, and the time taken for attaining
maturity. Alluvial are intensively cultivated.